Many passages in the Christian scriptures describe the belief that demons can indwell or possess a human being and cause them to behave strangely. Much mental and physical illness was attributed to this origin in the earlier eras.
– Pad of Definitions (1.04 Phantom Traveler), Official Website
Possession is identified throughout human history and its innumerable religions as the act of an outside force, either demonic or spiritual in nature, taking physical control of an individual's body or of an object. Humans, animals, even places and objects alike are susceptible to these supernatural forces.
To manifest on Earth, demons require a human body. They do not require consent for possession, although at least some demons can only gain access if the human is psychologically vulnerable. One demon was only able to possess a host when its target expressed a fear of flying when preparing to travel in an airplane, but Azazel was able to possess a reaper without any sign that she was emotionally vulnerable to his influence. Possession in and of itself can harm a person if the demon remains within the body for too long. While possessed, the human may sustain injuries or even be killed, but possession will continue to animate the body until the demon leaves it.
Possession can be forcibly ended by an exorcism or prevented using an anti-possession symbol. Sam's powers allow him to exorcise and kill demons, leaving the human unharmed.
When Dean becomes a demon, it is because the Mark of Cain has twisted his soul, not because he was possessed. As a result, Deanmon was also immune to exorcism and the anti-possession tattoo on his body, as he wasn't technically possessing himself.
For occupation of a human by an angel, see vessel.
Variations on spiritual possession can be found in the following episodes:
- 1.01 Pilot – The Woman in White, Constance Welch, takes possession of the Impala and tries to run down Sam and Dean.
- 1.05 Bloody Mary – The spirit of Mary Worthington possesses a mirror.
- 1.07 Hook Man – The spirit of Jacob Karns, a murderous preacher, lives on through what remains of the hook he wore in life, latching on to the repressed emotions of a preacher's daughter who wore part of the hook as a necklace.
- 1.11 Scarecrow – The Vanir, a divine spirit, possesses an inanimate scarecrow.
- 1.19 Provenance – The spirit of a long-dead murderous child, Melanie Merchant, and her guilt-ridden father possess a painting done of their family. This was the second example of a spiritual possession of an inanimate object (although some might think of this as more of a haunting than a possession).
- 4.13 After School Special – The spirit of Dirk McGregor possesses students who are being bullied and uses them to attack others, having latched on to the students who travel in the bus his father drives due to his father keeping a lock of his hair in a Bible that he carried with him.
- 6.14 Mannequin 3: The Reckoning – The spirit of Rose Brown possesses an anatomy dummy, a mannequin, and a Real Doll, using all three to kill men complicit in her death. Her spirit then possesses the Impala and attempts to kill Dean, but instead accidentally kills her sister, Isabel Brown.
- 7.22 There Will Be Blood and 7.23 Survival of the Fittest – Bobby possesses a woman, Louise, and uses her to try and kill Dick Roman.
- 8.06 Southern Comfort – Vance Collins, the spectre of a Civil War soldier, possesses people who handle one of its possessions, a penny, and causes them to kill people they hold grudges against.
- 10.16 Paint It Black – The spirit of a nun named Isabella begins possessing and murdering people who have confessed to sins of infidelity at a church in Worcester, Massachusetts.
- 11.07 Plush – The spirit of a children's party performer named Chester Johnson possesses a young man named Mike Hooks, a high school student named Michelle, an old man named Steve Burris, and his own nephew Max in his efforts to get revenge for his murder. Mike is killed when Chester attacks Sheriff Donna Hanscum and her deputy Doug Stover, but Dean is able to free Michelle with a rock salt round to the chest and Sam is able to free Steve with an iron railroad spike to the neck. Dean later uses the same spike to expel Chester from Max.
- 12.03 The Foundry - The spirit of Hugo Moriarty takes possession of Mary Winchester's body after she goes to his former home to investigate alone. He is later expelled from Mary's body after Dean wraps her in an iron chain, and he quickly burns away after Sam salts and burns his remains.
- 12.05 The One You've Been Waiting For - The spirit of Adolf Hitler is transferred from a Nazi Pocket Watch to Commandant Nauhaus, after he is given a blood transfusion from one of Hitler's relatives, Ellie Grant.
- 13.05 Advanced Thanatology - The spirit of Dr. Avery Meadows takes possession of Shawn Raider after Shawn takes ownership of his tether, a plague doctor's mask. Dr. Meadows takes Shawn to his home, where he has Shawn drill a hole into the side of his own head, killing him.
- 14.20 Moriah - When Chuck decides to initiate "The End", he unleashes souls from Hell, many of which take possession of the corpses buried in the cemetery, exploding out of the ground as zombies.
- 15.01 Back and to the Future - When the Winchesters and Castiel kill the zombies, the souls possessing them are released. The demon Belphegor casts a spell that drives all the souls out of the bodies, "for now."
- 15.02 Raising Hell - Two of the escaped ghosts possess two of the townspeople to try to force the hunters to drop the barrier. When they refuse, the spirits kill the people they are possessing from the inside before being driven out by Arthur Ketch. Francis Tumblety later takes possession of Ketch, but is driven out when Dean shoots Ketch with iron bullets.
- 15.03 The Rupture - When the Winchesters, Castiel, Belphegor, and Rowena walk through the cemetery, the still-lifeless corpses used by the ghosts can be seen.
Demonic possessions are listed below. Beginning in season three, incidents of demonic possession escalated rapidly.
- 1.04 Phantom Traveler – A demon possesses a passenger and causes the crash of an airliner. The demon seeks to finish the job when there are survivors. Sam and Dean are forced to board a plane and perform an exorcism. Upon being forced out of the body of the co-pilot, the demon briefly takes possession of the plane until Sam is able to finish the exorcism rite, sending the demon back to Hell.
- 1.22 Devil's Trap – It's revealed that Meg Masters is actually a girl possessed by a demon who is exorcised by Sam, a process which kills the real Meg. John is also possessed in this episode, by Azazel, and is able to temporarily regain control of his body while possessed. Azazel eventually flees his body after Sam wounds him with the Colt, but hesitates to kill him. Several other people are possessed during the episode including Tom, who is killed by Dean.
- 2.01 In My Time of Dying – Azazel possesses the reaper, Tessa, and a janitor in the hospital (as he was communicating with John). Several other hospital staff appear to also be possessed in this scene, as they exhibit the demonic black eyes.
- 2.08 Crossroad Blues – The Crossroads Demon in this episode was possessing a woman. She eventually abandons the woman after breaking Evan Hudson's contract.
- 2.09 Croatoan – Duane Tanner appears to be possessed much like Meg Masters was. The residents of River Grove, Oregon, in this episode did not exhibit the usual signs of possession (such as the 'black smoke' upon death).
- 2.14 Born Under a Bad Sign – Sam is possessed by Meg. She tries to convince Dean that Sam is turning evil, but he recognizes that Sam is possessed. Dean and Bobby try to exorcise Meg, but she has placed a binding link on Sam's body. Bobby must burn the link with a hot fire iron so that the possession can be ended. Meg flees Sam after the brand is broken, but is still at large as she was not exorcised. Bobby provides the brothers with anti-possession charms.
- 2.21 All Hell Breaks Loose: Part One & 2.22 All Hell Breaks Loose: Part Two – The Yellow-Eyed Demon returns, still occupying the body of the janitor from 2.01 In My Time of Dying. The spirit of John Winchester is able to interact with the demon and pull it out of the body temporarily. The demon returns to his body and is promptly killed along with his meatsuit by Dean with the Colt. A Crossroads Demon also appears in this episode, possessing someone else, when Dean makes his deal.
- 3.01 The Magnificent Seven – The Seven Deadly Sins, freed when the Devil's Gate in Wyoming opened, possess bodies. Ruby appears and kills several of them with a demon-killing knife, while Bobby Singer is able to exorcise the demons from another two victims. Envy is exorcised by Tamara, but the man he possesses does not survive.
- 3.02 The Kids Are Alright – Ruby reveals that she is a demon possessing a body.
- 3.04 Sin City – Demons possess Father Gil and Casey to promote the destruction of a town. Both are killed along with the people they are possessing by Sam with the Colt. Ruby interacts with Bobby.
- 3.05 Bedtime Stories – Sam summons a crossroads demon to discuss Dean's deal, then kills her with the Colt when she reveals she can't break Dean's deal.
- 3.09 Malleus Maleficarum – Ruby appears, as does Tammi, who is empowering a group of witches. Tammi is killed by Dean with the demon-killing knife.
- 3.12 Jus in Bello – A large group of demons possess townspeople, as well as Special Agent Victor Henriksen, and trap Sam and Dean in a sheriff's office. Ruby also appears, and tries to convince Sam and Dean to conduct a ritual sacrifice that will kill the demons. Instead, they allow the demons into the building and perform a mass exorcism. Lilith appears later, possessing a child. It is revealed that Sam and Dean now have anti-possession tattoos.
- 3.15 Time Is on My Side – In a flashback, a crossroads demon possesses a child, offering to make a deal with Bela Talbot. Also, Sam and Dean interrogate a demon about who holds Dean's contract and exorcise him eventually, but his meatsuit does not survive.
- 3.16 No Rest for the Wicked – Lilith possesses another child, tormenting the child's parents, and later takes over the body Ruby is possessing, apparently expelling Ruby in the process. Lilith flees when Sam proves immune to her powers. Lilith's henchmen possess most of the neighborhood.
- 4.01 Lazarus Rising – Ruby returns in a new body. Sam and Dean encounter three possessed people in a diner.
- 4.03 In the Beginning – Dean is sent to the past and encounters Azazel, who possesses a number of people in order to make deals. He even possesses Dean's grandfather, Samuel Campbell.
- 4.04 Metamorphosis – Sam performs a psychic exorcism on a demon.
- 4.07 It's the Great Pumpkin, Sam Winchester – Samhain is raised by witches, and possesses Don Harding. He is exorcised by Sam's powers.
- 4.09 I Know What You Did Last Summer – Alastair and other demons search for Anna. Sam reveals his encounters with demons in Dean's absence through flashbacks. It is revealed that Ruby currently occupies a body that was comatose and from which the spirit was absent.
- 4.10 Heaven and Hell – Alastair reappears and his body is destroyed when Anna regains her grace.
- 4.15 Death Takes a Holiday – Alastair returns in two other bodies with several other demons.
- 4.16 On the Head of a Pin – Dean is asked to torture Alastair for information. Sam kills Alastair.
- 4.18 The Monster at the End of This Book – Lilith appears possessing a "comely dental hygienist from Bloomington, Indiana," offering to make a deal with Sam. She flees her body when Raphael arrives.
- 4.20 The Rapture – Demons possess Jimmy Novak's neighbors and wife, trying to capture him. They are all killed by Sam and Dean and Castiel (while Castiel is using the body of Claire Novak), except for one that Sam exorcises psychically.
- 4.21 When the Levee Breaks – Ruby returns, and Sam prevents Dean from killing her.
- 4.22 Lucifer Rising – In a flashback, Azazel possesses a priest, Father Lehne, and murders several nuns. Ruby and Sam kidnap a demon possessing Cindy McKellen and torture her to locate Lilith, who returns in the body of the dental hygienist. Sam kills Lilith. Dean kills Ruby.
- 5.01 Sympathy for the Devil – Meg reappears with a number of other demons. Bobby is possessed, but manages to temporarily overcome the demon and stab himself to save Dean. The demons with Meg are killed and she flees her meatsuit. Several demons are destroyed at John's lock-up by angels.
- 5.06 I Believe the Children Are Our Future – A demon possesses Jesse's mother. He exorcises her.
- 5.10 Abandon All Hope... – Sam and Dean meet Crowley, a demon who wants to help them stop the Apocalypse. In Carthage, Michigan, they encounter Meg, who sets hellhounds on them. A number of demons are sacrificed to raise the Horseman Death.
- 5.12 Swap Meat – A demon possesses Nora. Dean and Gary exorcise her.
- 5.14 My Bloody Valentine – Demons attend to the Horseman Famine. He is defeated by Sam when he "eats" five demons, then uses his powers to exorcise them.
- 5.17 99 Problems – Demons under the control of the Whore of Babylon besiege a town.
- 5.20 The Devil You Know – Crowley returns and offers to help Sam and Dean find Pestilence by capturing Brady, a friend of Sam's from Stanford who is possessed. A number of demons work with Brady at Niveus Pharmaceuticals and at least one is killed by Dean. Crowley uses a binding link to keep the demon in the body. After getting what they need, Sam kills Brady. Crowley also makes a deal for Bobby's soul in exchange for locating Death.
- 5.21 Two Minutes to Midnight – Crowley leads Dean to Death, and restores Bobby's ability to walk. Two demons at Niveus Pharmaceuticals attempt to release the Croatoan virus but are killed by Bobby. A demon works with Pestilence, but is killed by Castiel.
- 5.22 Swan Song – Two demons are killed and drained, and Sam psychically kills several more. It is revealed that a number of demons in addition to Brady have been keeping track of Sam over the years by possessing people he knew. They are killed by Lucifer.
- 6.04 Weekend at Bobby's – Bobby has a Crossroads Demon tied up in a devil's trap in his basement which he tortures for Crowley's real name. After he gets the information on Crowley he burns the Crossroads Demon's bones, killing it and its host.
- 6.07 Family Matters – Christian Campbell is killed by the Alpha Vampire, but immediately revives with black eyes -- he has been possessed. Other demons arrive to transport the Alpha Vampire, and Crowley appears to speak to the Winchesters.
- 6.08 All Dogs Go to Heaven – Crowley orders Sam and Dean to investigate a series of vicious killings.
- 6.10 Caged Heat – Meg returns and partners with Sam, Dean, and Castiel in an assault on Crowley's monster prison. She has three demons with her, and they encounter Crowley and three other demons at the prison, including the possessed Christian Campbell. All except Meg (and secretly Crowley) are killed.
- 6.18 Frontierland – Two demons possessing cowboys go after Samuel Colt. He kills them with the Colt.
- 6.19 Mommy Dearest – Crowley reappears and demons kill two Jefferson Starships.
- 6.20 The Man Who Would Be King – Dean, Sam, and Bobby torture Red to find Ellsworth, who is killed by Castiel to keep his friends from finding Crowley. Castiel later kills three demons to protect his friends.
- 6.21 Let It Bleed – Demons kidnap Lisa and Ben; Lisa is possessed, and nearly dies when Dean exorcises the demon from her injured body.
- 6.22 The Man Who Knew Too Much – Crowley and a cloud of demons attack Castiel's angels in an attempt to prevent him from opening Purgatory alone. In a flashback, Sam killed a crossroads demon.
- 7.01 Meet the New Boss – Crowley is found hiding in an Enochian-layered camper van by Castiel, who instead of killing him, offers him his place of King of Hell under supervision. Crowley is later summoned by Sam, Dean, and Bobby for information on a spell to bind Death.
- 7.06 Slash Fiction – Crowley visits Dick Roman, the leader of the leviathans, and offers to broker an alliance. Dick turns him down and threatens to wipe out the demons should he feel inclined. Crowley vanishes.
- 7.08 Season Seven, Time for a Wedding! – A crossroads demon called Guy is brokering deals with humans and then exploiting a loophole by having his associate, Jackson, murder them shortly after. One such deal involves supplying Becky Rosen with the love potion she's using on Sam. The Winchesters attack the demons and Becky kills Jackson. Guy is rescued by the timely arrival of Crowley, who undoes all of Guy's deals in exchange for Guy's life. Crowley reveals he's kept his demons at bay in the hopes the Winchesters might succeed in killing the Leviathans. He then takes Guy back to Hell to make an example of him.
- 7.15 Repo Man – Four years ago, a demon possesses a psychotic postal worker called Jeffrey and murders several women before being captured and exorcised by the Winchesters. In the present, the murders start again and the Winchesters seek Jeffrey's help in understanding the demon's modus operandi. Jeffrey captures Dean and uses his blood to summon the demon with the intent of becoming its meatsuit once again. The demon rejects him, possessing a young man instead, and is exorcised soon after by Nora Havelock.
- 8.02 What's Up, Tiger Mommy? – Crowley possesses Linda Tran in order to get the demon Word of God tablet. When Dean tries to kill both Crowley and Linda with the demon-killing knife, Crowley flees and returns to his usual meatsuit, leaving Linda catatonic.
- 8.12 As Time Goes By – In order to infiltrate the Men of Letters, Abaddon possesses a woman named Josie Sands who is to be initiated into the order. After being unable to kill the demon, Henry Winchester shoots a devil's Trap-carved bullet into her brain, binding her to Josie. Dean says that he is going to cut Abaddon up into pieces and bury them in cement, forever entrapping her.
- 8.17 Goodbye Stranger – Using Meg, demons under the orders of Crowley search for Lucifer's Crypts. They possess various people including Ann Morton and Wendy Rice to try to find the Crypts, but those demons are killed by Castiel. Meg is killed by Crowley with an angel blade while buying Sam, Dean, and Castiel time to escape.
- 8.22 Clip Show – Sam and Dean discover that the Men of Letters recorded every demonic possession for 300 years up until their demise in 1958, including Ichabod Crane and Lizzie Borden. They find that the Men have a rating system with a possession such as the one in The Exorcist being a Class 2 Infernal Event. They discover a film of a Class 5 Infernal Event where two priests, Father Max Thompson and Father Simon, attempted a new exorcism to cure a demon and make it human again. The attempt failed and the old woman died while the demon escaped into the world, but Father Thompson continued his efforts, eventually curing one possessing Peter Kent. Abaddon is put back together and reveals that she killed Father Thompson and possessed Josie Sands to infiltrate and destroy the Men of Letters after learning of them and her from him.
- 8.23 Sacrifice – Sam and Dean capture Crowley to use him to for the third trial, which is to cure a demon. As Sam works on curing Crowley, he sends a distress call and Abaddon, still possessing Josie Sands' stitched-together body, arrives. She wants to kill Crowley and take over Hell, but Sam douses her in Holy Fire, causing her such extreme pain she quickly flees Josie's body and the scene. Crowley is nearly cured and shows signs of humanity, but Dean stops Sam before he can finish after learning from Naomi that Sam will die if he completes the trials.
- 9.02 Devil May Care – Abaddon has a demon perform a ritual to restore Josie Sands' body to act as her meatsuit once again. She later exorcises a crossroads demon who questions her and helps three demons loyal to her possess three soldiers to have stronger bodies to use. Sam and Dean discover the bodies the demons had previously used and discover that the people possessed all died when they were abandoned of old wounds they had suffered while possessed. The soldiers and the demons possessing them are killed by Gadreel.
- 9.10 Road Trip – At Crowley's suggestion, Dean lets him briefly possess Sam to help him expel Gadreel. Crowley succeeds and willingly returns to his usual body afterwards.
- 9.11 First Born – In 1863, Abaddon possesses Cain's wife Colette to try to get him to rejoin the Knights of Hell. When that fails, Abaddon starts to fatally damage Colette's body, leading to Cain trying to kill her with the First Blade. Abaddon flees at the last moment and he kills Colette instead.
- 9.16 Blade Runners – Crowley possesses Andre Devlin briefly to find out the location of the First Blade before returning to his usual body.
- 9.17 Mother's Little Helper – Abaddon, possessing the Mother Superior of a convent, and three demons, including one possessing Sister Agnes, steal people's souls to create an army of demons loyal only to Abaddon. The other two demons are exorcised by Henry Winchester and Josie Sands, but Abaddon is immune and Sister Agnes is away at the time of the exorcism. At Josie's insistence, Abaddon possesses her instead of Henry to infiltrate the Men of Letters. In the present, Sister Agnes and another demon are killed by Sam.
- 9.21 King of the Damned – Abaddon, still possessing Josie Sands, is killed by Dean with the First Blade.
- 11.01 Out of the Darkness, Into the Fire – Crowley, escaping his meatsuit before Cas can kill him, finds a middle-aged woman named Marnie to possess. Planning to kill whoever was in her home so he could made a call with blood magic, he is distracted when Marnie's husband tells him thought over her request and wants to have an orgy with their friends for her birthday. After the orgy, Crowley proceeds to kill everyone, and calls his minions to retrieve him.
- 11.18 Hell's Angel – After Sam and Dean temporarily trap Lucifer, Crowley enters the vessel in order to encourage Castiel to force Lucifer out so he can be permanently caged. However, Lucifer attacks Crowley, who is only saved when Sam exorcises him from Castiel's vessel.
- 12.06 Celebrating the Life of Asa Fox – The crossroads demon Jael crashes the wake of hunter Asa Fox, possessing Alicia Banes, Elvis Katz, and Jody Mills before a group exorcism sends the demon back to Hell.
- 13.18 Bring 'em Back Alive – A demon named Anthony is possessing a young woman who is in the process of being exorcised by two priests when Lucifer arrives. Seeing the Devil, Anthony realizes he's in trouble and is exorcised from the woman's body by Lucifer and sent back to Hell.
- 14.07 Unhuman Nature - Nick tracks down a former cop named Frank Kellogg, who tells him about encountering a man named Abraxas before he woke up in his police car with no memory and covered in Nick's family's blood. Nick remembers that Lucifer knew the name and realizes that Abraxas was a demon who possessed Frank to commit the murders. Despite Frank not being responsible, Nick kills him anyway as it was Frank's hands that were used to beat his wife and son to death.
- 14.11 Damaged Goods - Mary leads Nick to her lock-up where the demon Abraxas is trapped in an Enochian Puzzle Box. After Nick tells her that he wants to talk to Abraxas, Mary reminds Nick that Abraxas will need a meatsuit to do so and it can't be either of them. Instead, Nick kidnaps a security guard named Jeff whom Abraxas possesses as soon as Nick releases him. After a confrontation, Nick kills both Abraxas and Jeff with an angel blade.
- 15.01 Back and to the Future - After escaping Hell when God opens all of the doors, the demon Belphegor possesses the corpse of Jack Kline. Though reluctant, the Winchesters and Castiel agree to allow Belphegor to use Jack's body for the time being. Belphegor later tells Dean that he's looking for a new body, but all of the other corpses they saw were too "wormy" for his tastes. As Jack's eyes were burned out when God smote him, Belphegor wears a pair of sunglasses to blend in.
- 15.03 The Rupture - Ardat possesses Dr. Clark to get close to Arthur Ketch in the hospital. Both Ardat and Dr. Clark are later killed by Belphegor with an angel blade. After Belphegor is revealed to be using them to become the new King of Hell, Castiel smites the demon, causing Jack's body to burn into a charred skeleton.
In season six, the first known instances of monster possession appear.
- 6.12 Like A Virgin – Dragons summon Eve, the Mother of All Monsters, who possesses a young virgin.
- 6.16 ...And Then There Were None – Eve creates the Khan worm, which can enter a person's body through the ear and control their actions. The first man possessed, a trucker for the Starlight Cannery named Rick, kills his family while under the monster's control. The Khan Worm then enters another cannery worker and kills six men before Dean, Sam, Bobby, Rufus, Samuel, and Gwen appear on the scene. It then possesses Dean, who kills Gwen; Samuel, who is killed by Sam while possessed; and Bobby, who stabs and kills Rufus. Sam and Dean eventually overpower Bobby and shock him with electricity until the Khan Worm slides out of Bobby's ear and dies.
- 6.21 Let It Bleed – Eleanor Visyak is revealed to be a native of Purgatory who has been possessing the mother of a man named Westborough since the 1930's.
- 7.02 Hello, Cruel World – After the Leviathans take control of Castiel's vessel, it begins to deteriorate, which forces them to abandon his body and disperse in a local water reservoir. Through this action they manage to spread throughout the town of Stockville, Kansas, and take possession of various humans. Some of the higher-ranking Leviathans like Dick Roman possess influential public figures in order to carry out their plan.
- 9.03 I'm No Angel – A rogue reaper takes possession of, and kills, a woman named April Kelly in order to gain Castiel's trust and acquire information from him about Metatron.
- The Winchesters - The Akrida possess a number of people, including Rockin' Roxy, and mind control several others. The possession is occasionally fatal to the meatsuit as seen with Hector Salazar, but in other cases like with Roxy the meatsuit survives after the Akrida is banished by the Ostium. At one point, Latika Dar is possessed by an Akrida, but Ada Monroe kills it and saves her friend using the Akrida Crystal. When Mary Campbell kills Joan Hopkins with the Impala, all of the Akrida die, freeing their confused meatsuits from possession.
Brief History of Possession
Though belief in possession is spread throughout the world within various cultures, if you ask most people on the street about possession, the concept of demonic possession as understood by the Catholic Church will come to mind. During the Middle Ages, purported cases of demonic possession ran rampant throughout Europe. Exorcisms were commonplace.
Most people relate the subject of possession to the 1973 classic horror movie The Exorcist, based on the novel of the same name by William Peter Blatty. The book was inspired by the real-life story of a young Maryland boy on whom an exorcism was performed in 1949 at Alexian Brother's Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.
Though possession is considered by most as a terrifying prospect, there are some religions such as Voodoo that encourage spiritual possession by what are referred to as loa. Modern-day doctors and scientists believe that the demonically- or spiritually-possessed of the past were more than likely mentally disturbed people. Thus, possession was an uneducated way of explaining various mental illnesses.